How To Write Summary in English Composition


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How To Write Summary in English Composition

          We are sometimes required to write the substance of something we have heard or read :in other words, we are required to give in our own words a summary of the given passage or speech. It must be remembered that in writing the summary of a passage, we have to give only essential points and leave out all unnecessary details. 

๐Ÿ‘‰Rules for Writing the Summary of a Given Passage, story and article

       The following rules should be borne in mind : 

1. Read the passage several times until its general meaning is quite clear. 

2. Read again, making brief notes of the points which seem to be essential. 

3. Read the passage again, in order to make sure that nothing essential has been omitted in your notes. 

4. Revise the notes, cutting out any matter which still seems unessential, e.g, illustrations, details, repetitions, quotations, questions. 

5. Avoid any comments or ideas of your own. 

6. Express in simple prose whatever is expressed in difficult or poetic language, 

7. Write out the summary from your notes in short and clear sentences. It should be written in reported speech and in the past tense. The words and expressions of the original should rarely be used. 

8. Write out a fair copy, removing all mistakes in spelling, grammar, punctuation, etc. 

9. The length of the summary should be about one-third of the original length. If you are asked to give the summary in a certain number of words, then of course, keep within that limit. - 

๐Ÿ‘‰How to find out suitable Titles 

             If the given passage has no heading, one should be supplied to the summary. The title should be such as sums up in a word, a phrase, or a clause, the main subject of the passage, While reading the passage, you should mark some words or phrase that suitably expresses the main theme of the passage. This will be the heading or title you want.  

๐Ÿ‘‰Some Passages Summarized 

Study carefully the following examples which will tell you how to summarize a passage 

                   EXAMPLE-1 

             A stamp is, to many people, just a slip of paper that takes a letter from one town or country to another. They are unable to understand why we stamp collectors find so much pleasure in collecting them and how we find the time in which to indulge in our hobby. To them it seems a waste of time, a waste of effort and a waste of money. But they do not realise that there are many who do buy stamps, many who find the effort worth- while and many who, if they did not spend their time collecting stamps, would spend it less profitably. We all seek something to do in our leisure hours and what better occupation is there to keep us out of mischief than that of collecting stamps ? An album, a packet of hinges, a new supply of stamps, and the time passes swiftly and pleasantly. 

             Stamp-collecting has no limits and a collection never has an end; countries are always printing and issuing new stamps to celebrate coronations, great events, anniversaries and deaths. And the fascination of collecting is trying to obtain these stamps before one's rivals. Every sphere of stamp-collecting has its fascination- receiving letters from distant countries and discovering old stamps in the leaves of dusty old books. A stamp itself has a fascination all its own. Gazing at its little picture we are transported to the wilds of Congo, the homes of the Arabs, and the endless tracks of the Sahara desert. There is a history in a stamp. The ancient Roman Empire and the Constitution of America, India's Independence and the Allied victory, are all conveyed to our mind's eye by means of stamps. We see famous men- printers, writers, scientists, soldiers, politicians-and famous incidents. Stamps so small and minute, contain knowledge that is vast and important. 

                      SUMMARY 

Title : The Advantages of Stamp-collecting 

           Many people regard a stamp as just something necessary for sending letters. They consider stamp-collecting a waste of time, effort and money, and cannot realize that many people enjoy buying stamps. This hobby occupies their leisure, keeping them from less worthwhile pursuits and passing the time quickly, pleasantly and profitably. 

           Stamp-collecting is unlimited and unending: countries are always issuing new stamps to celebrate important national events. It is fascinating to try to obtain these first, to receive letters from distant countries and to discover stamps in old books. 

            A stamp itself is fascinating, showing geographical and historical pictures, famous people and incidents. Stamps, although small, contain vast knowledge. 

                     EXAMPLE-2 

           A man may usually be known by the books he reads, as well as by the company he keeps for there is a companionship of books as well as of men; and one should always live in the best company whether it is of books or of men. 

            A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the same today that it always was, and it will never change. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness, amusing and instructing us in youth, and comforting and consoling us in age. 

Heading : The Companionship of Books. Main Points : 

1. A man's character is known by the books he reads. 

2. One should always read the best books. 3. A good book is the best friend of man. It never changes. 

4. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It remains with us in prosperity and in poverty. 

5. It amuses and instructs us in youth and consoles us in old age. 

                  SUMMARY

Heading : The Companionship of Books.

As books, like friends, determine the character of a man, he should read the best books. A good book is his most patient, constant and cheerful companion, ever remaining with him in times of distress, ever instructing him in youth and consoling him in old age.

                  EXAMPLE-3

           Androcles was a slave. One day he ran away from his master and tried to hide in the forest. Near a cave in the forest he saw a lion lying on the ground and groaning. Seeing the lion did not Iny to get up and pursue him, he went up to it. He saw that the lion was in great pain, with a swollen and bleeding paw. He looked at the paw and found a huge thorn in it. He removed it and bound up the wound. Soon the lion was able to get up and walk, It became great friends with Androcles. 

            A few days later Androcles was captured by his master. He was thrown to a hungry lion which was kept in an enclosure. 

            Everyone had come to see the cruel fun of the lion killing Androcles. The lion rushed towards him. It stopped near Androcles and stood for a while looking at him. Then to everyone's great surprise it lay down by his side like a pet dog. Obviously, it had recognized Androcles and the help he had given it. Androcles became known as an extraordinary man, was pardoned by his master and freed. 

Heading : Androcles and the Lion 

MainPoints : 

1.Androcles escapes into forest; 

2. lion groaning, swollen paw; 

Androcles removes thorn; 

3. lion becomes friends, Androcles captured- punishment- thrown to lion; 

4. The lion shows gratitude; Androcles freed. 

                  SUMMARY 

Heading : Androcles and the Lion

      Androcles escaped into the forest to get rid of his master. He found a lion in a cave groaning with a swollen paw. He removed the thorn from the lion's paw and they became friends. Subsequently Androcles was captured and thrown to a hungry lion inside a cage. The lion recognized him and spared his life. Androcles proved to be an unusual person and was freed. 

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