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Contribution of Education Mahatma Gandhi Question Answer 12 class Education

Contribution of Education Mahatma Gandhi Question Answer 12 class education plus 2 education mahatma gandhi +2 education

Contribution of Education Mahatma Gandhi Question Answer 12 class Education

CONTRIBUTION OF EDUCATION (Mahatma Gandhi)

Contribution of Education Mahatma Gandhi MCQ Question Answer

1. When did Gandhi take birth?

(a) 2nd October, 1863

(b) 2nd October, 1869

(c) 9th October 1877

(d) None of these

Answer is (b) 2nd October, 1869

2. Who was the profounder of basic education?

(a) R. N. Tagore

(b) Mahatma Gandhi

(c) Sri Aurobindo

(d) Gopabandhu

Answer is (b) Mahatma Gandhi

3. Where did the basic education training center open in Odisha?

(a) Cuttack

(b) Anugal

(c) Puri

(d) Dhenkanal

Answer is (b) Anugal

4. When the basic Education was created ?

(a) 1947

(b) 1937

(c) 1942

(d) 1957

Answer is (b) 1937

5. The age range of basic education is?

(a) 6 – 14

(b) 5 -15

(c) 7 – 14

(d) 5 – 14

Answer is (c) 7 – 14

6. In which year basic education schools were opened in rule areas ?

(a) 1947

(b) 1937

(c) 1945

(d) 1936

Answer is (c) 1945

7. In which Magazine education curriculum was published?

(a) The Samaj

(b) The Harijana

(c) The Dharitri

(d) None of the above

Answer is (b) The Harijana

8. Which aspect was neglected in basic education?

(a) Craft work

(b) Creativity

(c) Aesthetic

(d) Writing

Answer is (b) Creativity

9. Which of the following is not feature of basic education?

(a) It is craft cantered

(b) It does not give emphasis on mother tongue

(c) It is based on free and compulsory education

(d) All of the above

Answer is (b) It does not give emphasis on mother tongue

10. Who gave emphasis on craft centred education?

(a) Gopabandhu

(b) Gandhiji

(c) Aurobindo

(d) R. N. Tagore

Answer is (b) Gandhiji

11. In which year M. K. Gandhi implemented free and compulsory education?

(a) 1942

(b) 1910

(c) 1937

(d) 1983

Answer is (c) 1937

12. In which year Gandhiji established an ashram at Sabarmati?

(a) 1879

(b) 1915

(c) 1921

(d) 1942

Answer is (b) 1915

13. Who opined, “Education is the all-round drawing out of the best in man and child body, mind and spirit”?

(a) M. K. Gandhi

(b) Gopabandhu

(c) Aristotle

(d) Aurobindo

Answer is (a) M. K. Gandhi

14. What was the other name of basic education ?

(a) Integral Education

(b) Universal Education

(c) Natural Education

(d) Nayee talim

Answer is (d) Nayee talim

15. What was the medium of instruction in basic education?

(a) English

(b) Mother Tongue

(c) Hindi

(d) None of these

Answer is (b) Mother Tongue


Short Questions and Answers of Contribution of Education  Mahatma Gandhi

1. When the Indian education conference was held at Wardha ?

Answer.  In 1937, October 22 and 23.

2. What was the Philosophical foundation of Gandhi?

Answer. Truth and Non- Violence.

3. Give the other name of basic education

Answer. Nai Talim or New training.

4. What is Education to Gandhi ?

Answer. To Gandhi, ‘Education is an all round drawing out of the best in child and man with mind, body and spirit”.

5. What do you mean by “Nai Talim”

Answer. Nai Talim is the another name of “Basic Education”

6. Wardha Scheme, what is means?

Answer. The all India National; Education Conference was convened at Wardha  on 22nd and 23rd October 1937 , under the Chairmanship of Gandhi and a scheme, named basic education was formed, known as Wardha scheme.

7. What do you mean by “Nai Talim”

Answer is ‘Nai Talim’ is the name of basic education of Mahatma Gandhi.

8. Why was the basic Education called so?

Answer. Basic Education is called so, because it is linked with the basic needs of the child like food, shelter clothing etc.

9. What is the aim of craft centered education?

Answer. To makes the pupil self supported.

10. Write one feature of basic Education

Answer. Free and compulsory primary education.

11. What were the methods of teaching in basic education?

Answer. Learning by doing

12. Write one demerit of basic Education

Answer. It gives much emphasis on handicraft

13. When basic education was implemented

Answer. It was implemented in1937.

14. In which place of odisha, there was a basic training school?

Answer. Anugal


 Fill in the blanks of contribution of education

1. _______ Propounded craft centred education.

Answer. Gandhiji

2. In the year______ Gandhiji implemented Basic education.

Answer. 1937.

3. The life philosophy of Gandhiji base on _______ and ________.

Answer. Truth, Non-Violence.

4. Basic education enables a child to be_______

Answer. Self supported

5. The other name of basic Education is ________.

Answer. Nai Talim./ Wardha Scheme of Education.

6. The medium of instruiction of basic education was ______

Answer. Mother Tongue.

7. Educatin is “ the all round drawing of best in man and child, body, mind and spirit _______.”

Answer. Gandhiji.

8. There were ________ working days in basic Education.

Answer.288

9. Wardha conference was held in_______.

Answer. October 22nd and 23rd 1937.

10. There was basic education training centre at ________ in odisha.

Answer. Anugal

11. Free and compulsory education is one of the ________ of basic Education.

Answer. Features.

12. Gandhiji established an ashram at Sabarmati in the year _________.

Answer. 1915


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Very Short Question Answer of contribution of Education Mahatma Gandhi 2 Marks 

Question. 1. Give three causes of failure of Basic Education ? 

Answer . ( i ) The Basic Education concept was not clear .              

( ii ) Much more emphasis on Craft Education & no creativity . 

( iii ) English less matriculation courses . 

 

Question. 2. What is the Wardha Scheme ? 

Answer . In 1937 , All India National Education Conference was convened at Wardha on 22nd and 23 October under the Chairmanship of Gandhi . A scheme called the Basic Education scheme was drawn up which was named as Wardha scheme . The Jakir Hussain Committee prepared a curriculum for Basic Education . 

 

Question. 3. Explain the aims of Gandhian Education ? 

Answer . To Gandhiji , Education means an all - round drawing out of the best in a child and man , with body , mind and spirit which means an all round development for the innate powers of the child , moral and character building aim , the knowledge of truth in life . 

 

Question. 4. Give three main features of Basic Education ? 

Answer . The main features of Basic Education includes : 

( 1 ) Education should be free , compulsory up to the age of 14 years 

( ii ) Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction. 

( iii ) It aimed at creating ideal citizenship 

( iv ) Education should be craft centered & self supporting . 

 

Question. 5. Give the subjects of the curriculum in Basic Education ? 

Answer . The curriculum of Basic Education laid much stress on subjects like the craft , the mother tongue , mathematics , social science , music and drawing . The medium of education was mother tongue which develops self expression , clarity of thought , develops nationalism & patriotism . 

 

Question. 6. Why is Basic Education called Basic ? 

Answer . It is called Basic because , 

( 1 ) It provides the minimum education to a child . 

( ii ) It fulfills basic needs such as food , shelter and clothing . 

( iii ) It is based on Indian Culture . 

 

Short Question Answer of Contribution of Education Mahatma Gandhi 3 Marks 

Question. 1. Explain the main features of Basic Education ? 

Answer . The main features of Basic Education are as follows 

( i ) Education should be free and compulsory up to the age 7 to 14 . 

( ii ) Education should be craft centered . 

( iii ) Education should develop moral values . 

( iv ) Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction . 

( v ) It creates ideal citizenship 

 

Question. 2. Why is Basic Education called Basic ? 

Answer . Basic Education is called so because : 

( i ) It attempts to give the minimum amount of learning to be acquired by an average child 

( ii ) It is linked with the basic urges of human life . 

( iii ) It is correlated with the basic needs of the child like food , clothing , shelter , clean and healthy living etc. 

( iv ) The cultivation of aesthetic , cultural and social qualities are best fulfilled through the medium . 

( v ) It makes use of the native potentialities of the child . 

( vi ) It is intimately related to the basic occupation of the community . 

 

Question. 3. Mention the reasons for failure of the Basic Education Scheme ? 

Answer . ( i ) Lack of proper implementation strategy of the scheme . 

( ii ) Lack of dedicated teachers 

( iii ) Lack of finance 

( iv ) Lack of proper equipment , stress on manual work , neglect of intellectual pursuit etc. 

 

Question. 4. What were Gandhi's views on Work Education ? 

Answer . According to Gandhi's work Education implies that work or craft should be the starting point of all other subjects . Stress was given on the principle of cooperative activity . Planning , accuracy , initiative and individual responsibility in learning work was the center of the entire teaching learning process . In other words , works like spinning , weaving and agriculture should be the center of all educational activities in the school . 

 

Question. 5. What was the contribution of Basic Education to Modern Society ? 

Answer . ( i ) It provides Universal education .

( ii ) This education makes the pupil self - supported . 

( iii ) It helps in the formation of character of the pupil . 

( iv ) It emphasizes the mother tongue . 

( v ) It provides vocational education . 

 

Long Question Answer of Contribution of  Education Mahatma Gandhi 7 marks

 Question. 1. Write a note on the educational philosophy of Gandhi . 

Answer . As a social leader reformer , a practice philosopher , educationist and a socio political reformer of modern India , Gandhi , father of the nation , the apostle of peace and non - violence the champion of freedom movement , led a scheme of education for India known as Basic Education scheme . His educational philosophy is the potent force for social reconstruction . To him true education is " an all round drawing out of the best in child and man- body mind the spirit . The chief tenets of his educational philosophy are as follows : 

( i ) Education should be free and compulsory : Gandhi advocated free and compulsory education for 7 to 14 age groups and wanted to combine primary education with secondary education called it English less matriculation . He opined that democracy will exist best when education becomes free and compulsory . It will develop love for creative work . 

( ii ) Craft Centered Education : He believed in the principle of learning of John Dewey and basic education aimed at providing education on crafts . He introduced basic crafts like spinning and weaving , carpentry and agriculture . Introduction of crafts evoke the spirit of love for work and teach them the dignity of labour . He wanted that the whole educative process be imparted through handicraft . The child will learn the motto , " work is worship " 

( iii ) Self - supporting Education : Gandhiji knew that India is a poor state and it cannot afford to educate millions . So Gandhi suggested education to be self - supporting . The concept of " Karma Yoga " and dignity of labour will help in the intellectual development . So the child should pay labour partly by binding a gap between education and life drawing upon the cultural , social and vocational potentialities . It is a measure of social reconstruction . 

( iv ) Emphasis on mother -tongue : Gandhi emphasized mother tongue as the medium of instruction . To him the English system of education hinders understanding and clarity of ideas . By their mother tongue , the children can express their views clearly and understand others and this would build sound foundations of education . 

( v ) Education Based on Non Violence : A Unique feature of Gandhi's educational philosophy was the application of the law of non - violence , He wanted to build a classless society and elimination of exploitation . By the scheme of non - violence and peace he conquered the heart of brutal forces . So his education of philosophy is based on non - violence . He wanted to create a generation which should believe in non - violence . 

( vi ) Child Centredness : Child centredness is an important feature of Basic Education which means the children should be taught to the needs , interests , capacities of the children . Curriculum and method of teaching to be developed to the capacities of the learners . Different crafts and subjects to be included in the curriculum to meet the individual differences . 

 

Question.2 . What should be the aims , curriculum and methods of teaching of Basic Education ? 

Answer . M. K. Gandhi is called an idealist, a realist , a spiritual person , in one . He advocated his philosophy of education and laid stress on religious education . The main aims of his philosophy are : 

( i ) The Utilitarian Aim 

( ii ) The Cultural Aim 

( iii ) Harmonious Development Aim 

( iv ) Complete living Aim & 

( v ) Character Building Aims 

 

( i ) The Utilitarian Aim : In this aim the basis needs of human life like food , shelter and clothing and self supporting education to be imparted . The self supporting aspects aimed at self sufficient and education to meet one's own expenses . 

 

( ii ) The Cultural Aim : Culture is essential to refine one's personality . One should have the qualities of mind which should be reflected in one's own conduct . 

 

( iii ) Harmonious Development Aim : To Gandhi , education means , An all round drawing out of the best in child and man , with body , mind and spirit . To him harmonious development means - innate and acquired powers development from social to intellectual . Basic Education helps in the all round development personality of the individual .

 

( iv ) Complete living Aim : To Gandhi , life is very complex . So he formulated a scheme of education which would fit the children to later life and a child to be prepared for complete living . He should learn how to support his living , Social adjustment , occupation , and self reliance . 

 

( v ) Character Building Aims : Character Building was the chief aim of basic Education . To him character is the expression of the whole personality including the ethical and spiritual aspects . One should sub -ordinate his own interest to the greater of the society ; co - operate his fellow being to bring about a new social order . Such a person is really a man of character . 

Curriculum : To Gandhi the curriculum should be child centered , Education should be related to the environment of the child . He opposed English as the medium of instruction and mother - tongue as the medium of instruction because English hinders the clarity of thought and put a check on self - expression . He introduced craft as a part of curriculum and the whole process of education should be imparted through some handicrafts . 

( i ) Craft : Education should be given through the medium of some craft on productive work . 

(ii) Activity Centered : 

The teaching of various subjects should be emphasized . Teaching of craft will be the center point and teaching of all subjects should be related to craft . The co- related teaching methods to be followed . 

( iii ) Mother - tongue : Mother tongue as the medium of instruction and Gandhi stressed that all education must be given through the medium of mother tongue . Through the mother tongue the child can express freely and understand others . It will help in the development of patriotism and nationalism . 

( iv ) Religious and Moral education : For the development of personality character , religious and moral education is to be given . All should respect all religions . Ethics of all religious is to be taught as a part and parcel of education.

 

Question. 3. Discuss the life philosophy of Gandhi ? 

Answer . Gandhi enunciated the integrated philosophy of life . His Experiment on Truth ' was the outcome of his experience and the prominent philosophical activities are his concept - God , truth , doctrines of morality , nonviolence , Satyagraha , labour , equality , citizenship , brotherhood of man . His life was concerned with 

( i ) His concept of Truth 

( ii ) His concept of Karma 

( iii ) His concept of Non - violence 

( iv ) His concept of Satyagraha 

( v ) His idea of Decentralization 

( vi ) His idea of machine 

( vii ) His concept of the village 

( viii ) Gandhiji's Gramraj 

( ix ) His views on morality 

 

( i ) His concept of Truth : Gandhiji believed in truth to be the ultimate reality and God can be realized through Truth . God is truth , and truth is God . He said truth is manifested both externally and it is expressed through the voice of God . He was the pioneer of truth and non - violence and conquered the brutal force . 

 

( ii ) His concept of Karma : Gita discussed life and Karma Yoga . Gandhiji was deeply influenced by the Gita for a religious dedication to the service of man . Service of humanity is God . Religion is not a part from human activity . Action takes its origin from Brahma and Brahma ' is present in all kinds of sacrifice of service . To Gandhi , society and social service are the integral part of life and they are sacred activities .

 

( iii ) His concept of Non - violence : Non - violence of Gandhi was equivalent to love . His concept of non - violence retained deeply with Indian spirituality . The concept of Ahimsa or non violence finds expression is self sacrifice , self sufficiency , self supporting , redemptive love . Non violence of Gandhi was a means and not an end . Man is the end of his material , mental and moral well - being and growth . 

 

( iv ) His concept of Satyagraha : Gandhiji's concept of Satyagraha was dynamic aspect of non - violence and a tool which created a human context for social conflict . Truth is the end and non- violence is the means to human activities . The term ' Satyagraha ' is derived from the Gujarati word ' agraha ' which means fineness . For Gandhiji Satyagrahis is a dynamic quality of non - violence . Satyagraha for Gandhi's way of truth , force for acting socially and humanity .

 

 ( v ) His idea of Decentralization : Gandhi was against concentration of power and individualism of capitalism . He wants a kind of society were the economic and social structure of descent is realized on the basis of industry and agriculture . 

 

( vi ) His idea of the machine : Gandhiji was not against the machine but he did not want it to become the master of man . He opposed machines because it created unemployment and exploitation of the poor workers by capitalists and too much dependence on machines . So he suggested limiting the manufacture of machines & emphasized on cottage industry and handicrafts . 

 

( vii ) His concept of the village : To Gandhi village is a small group of people , constructing a unit of society . So the village should be self-governing . He considered that it should be self - sufficient in the matter of its vital necessities like food , clothing and shelter . Secondly his village was not an agricultural community , there should be a balance between agriculture and the village industries . He desired to create an agro - industrial community . 

 

( viii ) Gandhiji's Gramraj : Village self Govt . was the opinion of Gandhi . His idea of Gramraj or village self Govt . Means it is a complete republic , independent or its religion is independent with other necessaries . Thus for every villages the first concern will be no caste and hopes to abandon untouchability and create a classless society . 

 

( ix ) His views on morality : To Gandhiji the end of all knowledge is the development of morality . The society and individual progress through morality , purity in thought , speech and deeds . So a social foundation of truth and purity should be established through education . To him moral education to be imported in schools . Morality is the best virtue of humanity . 

 

Question. 4. Explain the Essential features of Basic Education ? 

Answer . The essential features of Basic education includes : 

( i ) Free and Compulsory Education 

( ii ) Purposeful Activity 

( iii ) Mother tongue 

( iv ) Self - supporting 

( v ) Primarily for village 

( vi ) New cooperative regime 

( vii ) Dignity of labour 

( viii ) Cooperative work 

( ix ) Integrated Teaching 

( x ) Educates body , mind and spirit 

 

(i) Free and Compulsory Education : Basic Education implies a free and compulsory education implies a free and compulsory education for all children between the age of 6 to 14 years . 

( ii ) Purposeful Activity : Basic Education centers around some purposeful activity or a useful and productive craft . 

( iii ) Mother tongue : The medium of education is the mother- tongue of the child . 

( iv ) Self - supporting : Basic Education is self- supporting . Children learn by doing . But they earn from their craft work as well , so as to cover their expenses . Thus craft has both an educational and economic value . 

( v ) Primarily for the village : Basic Education was primarily devised for the village . Gandhiji says " In discussing the question of primary education . I have hitherto deliberately confined myself to the village as it is to villages that the bulk of India's population resides . To tackle successfully the question of villages is to solve the problem for the cities also . 

( vi ) New cooperative Regime : Basic Education aims at bringing about a new cooperative regime in place of the present human regime based on exploitation and violent forces . 

( vii ) Dignity of labour : Basic Education inculcates the virtues of dignity of labour , a keen sense of discipline and a great sense of responsibility . 

( viii ) Cooperative work : In Basic Education both the teachers & pupils work for community development and social progress . 

( ix ) Integrated Teaching : All the subjects are taught in an integrated way . All the instruction is correlated with craft or the natural environment or the social environment . 

( x ) . Educates body , mind and spirit : Basic Education is meant to educate the body , mind and spirit of the child . It secks to develop the child as a whole . 

 

Question. 5. Discuss the failure of Basic Education ? 

Answer . In Spite of the merits of Basic Education the scheme was vehemently criticized by the educationalist and richer class people and suffers from a number of limitations . After the death of Gandhi the scheme was given a death below . The most important reasons of the down fall of Basic Education are as follows : 

( i ) The unclear concept 

( ii ) Emphasis on Idealistic views 

( iii ) Emphasis on Economic Aspects 

( iv ) Compact Area Approach 

( v ) Absence of Textbooks 

( vi ) Lack of Trained , skilled Teachers 

( vii ) Faculty Time Table 

( viii ) Costliness of Basic Education 

( ix ) Opposition of Traditionalists 

( x ) Matriculation Minus English 

( xi ) Lack of Research 

 

( i ) The unclear concept : In that period most of the educationists and education administrators were not clear about the concept of Basic Education . They were confused of the craft education . The common people could understand nothing. There was provision of the propagation and no mass media system to highlight the program . So the scheme could not touch common people . 

 

( ii ) Emphasis on Idealistic views : The scheme laid stress on some idealistic practices like manual work . Such a scheme or education was not accepted by the British and the intellectuals , because the educated people don't appreciate that their children could do any manual labour . They sent their children to public schools and English medium schools . So the confusion is created . 

 

( iii ) Emphasis on Economic Aspects : In the Basic Scheme of education too much emphasis was given on economic aspects . The craft contentedness was not accepted by the intellectuals as well as educationists . The productivity activity of self supporting aspect exploits the child labour and craft work puts emphasis on economic aspect . The student become money minded . The guardians felt that their children were turned into laborers so they opposed the basic idea of craft . 

( iv ) Compact Area Approach : The Basic schools were opened in some specific centers and areas , especially in rural areas . The scheme was worked out in a limited area on an experimental basis . So Compact Area approach was a major cause of the failure of such education system . 

( v ) Absence of Textbooks : Basic scheme of Education emphasized on craft education . Text - Books were not stressed in Basic Education . There was no writer to prepare Text - books on craft training . It was one of the causes of the downfall of Basic Education . 

( vi ) Lack of Trained , skilled Teachers : The traditional teachers failed to understand the new pattern of education of Gandhi and the curriculum prepared by Dr. Jakie Hussain . Qualified , trained , skilled teachers were not available as it was a mechanical teaching . There was no provision of Teachers training . So lack of qualified , trained skilled teachers led the Basic Education scheme to its downfall . 

( vii ) Faculty Time Table : In Basic Education much more was invested or devoted for craft work and other subjects were neglected . In a Basic school ( 2/3 ) two third of the time was utilized in craft work . On the time table academic subjects come after craft work . So the academic subjects were neglected . Agricultural students become tired to their academic work . So faculty time table was an obstacle of spreading Basic Education . 

( viii ) Costliness of Basic Education : As Basic Education needed equipment . So more initial cost was required to purchase craft equipment . There was no funds to meet such expenses and the Govt . could not afford it . So it led to its downfall . 

( ix ) Opposition of Traditionalists : The dream to build a classless society was opposed strongly by the higher class people . So traditionalists and conservatives were afraid that the new social order would upset their position so they strongly opposed the system of education . 

( x ) Matriculation Minus English : Gandhiji emphasized that English should not be taught to the students in matriculation stages . But the richer classes opposed this and did not prefer to admit their students in such a school . So the strength of the school has decreased day by day . 

( xi ) Lack of Leadership :  No research activities were encouraged and no research centers were set up . So lack of research , newer methods of teaching , techniques the Basic scheme of Education led its downfall . 


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